Friday, April 12, 2024

CAFC Partially Remands "HERE COMES THE JUDGE" Appeal to TTAB for Production of AEO Materials

Well, here's a bit of "inside baseball." You may recall that, about a year ago, Michael P. Chisena was on the losing end of three oppositions brought by the Major League Baseball Players Association (MBPLA) and New York Yankee outfielder Aaron Judge. [TTABlogged here]. Chisena, now appearing pro se, appealed to the CAFC. He then filed a motion for access to Attorneys-Eyes-Only material that he was not allowed to see when he was represented by counsel before the Board. The court granted a limited remand so that the Board may consider the issue but limited the potential production to materials cited in the trial briefs at the TTAB and/or in the TTAB's decision. Michael P. Chisena v. Major League Baseball Players Association, Aaron Judge, Appeal No. 2023-2073 (Fed. Cir., Nov. 8, 2023).


In its remand order, the CAFC stated: "the court finds it appropriate to remand to allow the Board to consider whether the protective order should be modified to allow Mr. Chisena access to appellees’ AEO-designated material referenced in either the trial briefs or the Board’s final decision to ensure he has a fair opportunity to prosecute his case on appeal."

On April 10, 2024, the Board issued an order [here] requiring the parties to "meet and confer in good faith to (i) identify the AEO-designated materials to which the parties’ trial briefs or the Board’s final decision referred, and (ii) determine which of those AEO-designated materials, if any, can be redesignated as 'CONFIDENTIAL' by agreement of the parties."

"Prior to their meeting, the parties must review Section 412.01(a) of the TBMP and authorities discussed therein, regarding the proper designation of confidential matter. The parties are reminded that the Board’s standard protective order provides for two tiers of protected information:" CONFIDENTIAL (shielded from public access) and CONFIDENTIAL - ATTORNEYS EYES ONLY (shielded from public access, restricted from any access by the parties, and available for review by outside counsel for the parties and, subject to the provisions of paragraphs 4 and 5 (of the Board's Standard Protective Order), by independent experts or consultants for the parties).

Over the seventy days following the meet-and-confer, the parties must report seriatim to the Board with regard to their agreements and disagreements regarding what should be produced. Chisena may also challenge the AEO designations made by the opposers. The Board suggested that Chisena may want to enlist a lawyer to help him in this process.

Read comments and post your comment here.

TTABlogger comment: Suppose Chisena had not been represented by counsel before the TTAB. Would the Board have required the opposers to similarity produce AEO materials that had not been provided to Chisena?

Text Copyright John L. Welch 2024.

Thursday, April 11, 2024

"MEET THE BLOGGERS" Postponed Until 2025

Marty Schwimmer and yours truly, the TTABlogger, have decided to postpone our next MEET THE BLOGGERS get-together until next year. For some reason, I think it will be in Philadelphia. Does that ring a bell? In any event, we hope to see y'all in Atlanta next month.

MEET THE BLOGGERS - San Diego 2005
(Click on photo for larger picture)

Read comments and post your comment here.

TTABlogger comment: WYHA?

Text Copyright John L. Welch 2024.

S.D. Ohio District Court, Despite Default, Stays Infringement Action in Favor of Pending TTAB Proceeding

The U.S. District Court for the Southern District of Ohio stayed this trademark infringement action even though Defendant Goatlift had defaulted by not filing an answer to the complaint. The court had serious doubts that Goatlift's mark posed a likelihood of confusion, and therefore whether Plaintiff 1661 was entitled to judgment. Instead of deciding that issue, the court chose to stay the lawsuit in favor of an opposition pending between the parties (Opposition No.91264548). 1661, Inc. d/b/a GOAT v. Goatlift, LLC, Case No. 2:24-cv-78 (S.D. Ohio, March 27, 2024).

The court noted that it has discretion to stay an action pending the resolution of an administrative proceeding. In making that ruling, it should consider if any prejudice would result from the stay, whether it would simplify the issues, and whether a stay is convenient at the particular stage of the litigation.

The court first found that a stay would not harm Plaintiff 1661:

Unlike here, the TTAB docket demonstrates that both parties have been actively involved in the opposition proceedings, with briefing on each application to be completed within approximately one month. Yet, Plaintiff waited until January of this year - over three years - to file its civil suit in this Court. Given that Plaintiff proceeded before the TTAB for three years before filing suit, Plaintiff will not be prejudiced by waiting for a conclusion of those proceedings.

Second, the stay will simplify the issues because issue preclusion may apply in the civil action pursuant to B&B Hardware. If the Board finds confusion likely, and if that decision is not appealed or is affirmed on appeal, Plaintiff 1661 will be entitled to judgment in this civil action. If a Board finding that confusion is unlikely is upheld, 1661 will not be entitled to judgment. "Either way, a final TTAB decision will be binding on this Court."

Third, a stay is convenient at this stage of the litigation. Since plaintiff's success on the merits is not "guaranteed," the court would need to perform a full likelihood of confusion analysis (a test Plaintiff did not even cite in its motion for default judgment).

Thus, although the civil action is at the default judgment stage, this is one of the rare instances where it is more convenient to stay the litigation in favor of the administrative proceeding.

All three factors favored a stay, and so the court directed the clerk of the court to stay the case.

Read comments and post your comment here.

TTABlogger comment: If Defendant Goatlift is actively contesting the opposition proceeding, why did it default in the civil action?

Text Copyright John L. Welch 2024.

Wednesday, April 10, 2024

Divided 9th Circuit Says District Court Has Power to Adjudicate TM Applications

Section 1119 of the Trademark Act gives a federal district court the power to "determine the right to registration, order cancelation of registrations, in whole or in part, restore canceled registrations, and otherwise rectify the register with respect to the registrations of any party to the action." Does it give a court power to invalidate pending trademark applications? A divided panel of the U.S. Court of Appeals said yes in BBK Tobacco & Foods LLC d/b/a HGI v. Central Coast Agriculture, Inc., Appeals Nos. 22-16190 and 16281 (9th Cir. April 2, 2024).

BBK, a seller of smoking-related products under the mark RAW, alleged that Central Coast infringed the RAW trademark by selling cannabis products under the mark RAW GARDEN. The district court granted BBK's summary judgment motion on its infringement claim, as well as on its counterclaim to invalidate four of Central Coast's pending trademark applications (on the ground of lack of bona fide intent).

The Ninth Circuit panel affirmed the invalidation of the four Central Coast pending applications, ruling that when an action involves infringement of a registered trademark, a district court also has jurisdiction to consider challenges to the trademark applications of party to the action. The dissenting judge opined that federal courts lack authority to cancel pending applications.

The panel majority concluded that the district court's power to "determine the right to registration" and to "rectify the register" includes the power to decide disputes over trademark applications. The Trademark Act describes an application as a request for registration, and therefore a challenge to an application "necessarily affects the applicant's right to a registration."

The plain language of Section 1119 thus grants a district court jurisdiction to consider challenges to the trademark applications of a party to the action if the action involves a registered trademark.

Permitting the district court to adjudicate trademark applications when a registration is involved "advances the interest in resolving all registration disputes in a single action." Section 1119 does not require a district court to address such claims when "the interest in efficiency or other considerations counsel against adjudicating a right to registration."

The dissenting judge contended that the Trademark Act's text, structure, and context confirm that district courts are not allowed "to interfere with the PTO's approval process and to prematurely cancel pending trademark registration applications. (emphasis in original).

The judge pointed out that "[a]s a historical matter, courts have seemingly always deferred to patent and trademark tribunals to review trademark applications in the first instance." Congress has created specific procedure and protections within the USPTO to adjudicate trademark applications. That system should not be interfered with lightly.

The phrase "determine the right to registration" in Section 1119 does not authorize cancelling registrations. It refers to the court's authority to determine "the ownership, scope, priority, and use of trademarks, which may entitle a party to registration of the mark." Section 1119 gives a court the power to decide "who has rights to a mark."

The term "otherwise" in the phrase "otherwise rectify the register," is a "big deal." The canon noscitur a sociis (a word is known by the company it keeps) instructs that all terms in Section 1119 be read similarly. Each of the other powers in Section 1119 refer to control over completed registrations. So should "right to registration" be read.

And so, the dissenting judge would not reach the issue of cancellation of Central Coast's four pending applications.

Read comments and post your comment here.

TTABlogger comment:The majority does not cite any court precedent for its position. There does not seem to be any other court of appeals decision on point. What do you think? Some lower courts have suggested that a district court has authority over applications for marks that are sufficiently related to the marks at issue in the infringement lawsuit.

Text Copyright John L. Welch 2024.

Tuesday, April 09, 2024

TTABlog Test: How Did These Three Recent 2(d) Appeals Turn Out?

A TTAB judge once said to me that one can predict the outcome of a Section 2(d) appeal 95% of the time just by looking at the marks and the involved goods/services. Here are the three such appeals recently decided by the TTAB. How do you think these three came out? No hints this time. [Answers in first comment.]

In re Pace 49, Inc., Serial No. 90873297 (April 4, 2024) [not precedential] (Opinion by Judge Mark Lebow). [Section 2(d) refusal of PACE KLEENGROW for “Algicides, fungicides, bactericides, disinfectants, and virucides for greenhouse structures and equipment and public areas surfaces; Pesticide for ornamental crops in greenhouses and in greenhouse recirculated irrigation systems,” in view of the registered mark CLEANGROW for “Water treatment chemicals for use in greenhouse and hydroponic systems; chemical products for preventing scale; nutrients for hydroponic and soil medias; fertilizers, namely, hydroponic fertilizers, fertilizers for use in greenhouse and hydroponic systems, and multi-phase liquid-based fertilizers."]

In re Cuts Clothing, Inc., Serial No. 90880357 (April 4, 2024) [not precedential] (Opinion by Judge Thomas W. Wellington). [Section 2(d) refusal to register VERSAKNIT for "textile fabrics for the manufacture of clothing" in view of the registered marks VERSAFLEX for “Non-woven textile fabrics” and VERSATECH for "Woven fabric for use in the manufacture of apparel and other related uses.”]

In re Premium Economy Concepts LLC, Serial No. 90014041 (April 5, 2024) [not precedential] (Opinion by Judge Christopher C. Larkin). [Section 2(d) refusal to register DRT MOTORSPORTS for "bolt-on styling parts including bumpers, fenders, doors, grills, tire carriers, and hood scoops for off-road recreational vehicles" [MOTORSPORTS disclaimed], in view of the registered mark DRT STYLE for "automotive accessories, namely, fender flares."]

Read comments and post your comment here.

TTABlog comment: How did you do? See any non-WYHA?s

Text Copyright John L. Welch 2024.

Monday, April 08, 2024

TTAB Orders Cancellation of TEEN EARTH Registration Due to Nonuse With Intent Not to Resume Use

Speaking of proving nonuse/abandonment, here's an instructive opinion right on point. The Board granted a petition for cancellation of a registration for the mark TEEN EARTH for "entertainment in the nature of beauty pageants" on the ground of abandonment. Petitioner Carousel, owner of the registered mark MISS EARTH for identical services, carried its burden to prove nonuse of the TEEN EARTH mark for a period of more than three years with an intent not to resume use. Carousel Productions, Inc. v. Michael R. Stafford, Cancellation No. 92076712 (April 4, 2024 [not precedential] (Opinion by Judge Michael B. Adlin).

The parties filed more than 100 pages of objections, responses to objections, and replies to responses, with regard to the trial testimony and evidence. The Board observed that "[w]hile the parties’ objections may provide a great example of overkill to those searching for one, they are otherwise unhelpful." Judge Adlin pointed out that:

Fortunately, there is no need for us to rule on the parties’ many repetitive, but not outcome determinative, evidentiary objections. We are able to, inter alia: identify hearsay and apply its exceptions; determine whether witnesses have provided a “proper foundation” or sufficiently authenticated documents; assess relevance; and, more generally, apply the Federal Rules of Evidence and Trademark Rules.

Petitioner Carousel is a Philippines corporation that operates the international MISS EARTH beauty pageant. Respondent Stafford is the assignee of the subject registration, which was obtained by former U.S. franchisees of Carousel.

The Board acknowledged the difficulty a party has in trying to prove a negative:

[W]e should point out that by their nature, "nonuse claims such as Petitioner’s in this case are typically difficult or impossible to prove by direct evidence. Indeed, in a country of hundreds of millions of people and substantial, constantly churning commerce, which comprises a large portion of North America, obtaining negative evidence from, for example, each potential pageant contestant, audience member or other potential witness that could encounter the pageant services in question would not be feasible. If doing so were required, it would be essentially impossible to ever prove nonuse abandonment.

Consequently, a prima facie case of nonuse may be established inferentially based on proven facts.

Petitioner Carousel searched for but could not find any evidence of use of TEEN EARTH by the original owners of the registration or by Respondent Stafford during the three years prior to the filing of the petition for petition for cancellation (on March 15, 2021). Those owners stated that in 2018 they decided to no longer “do the TEEN EARTH pageants” and to turn them over to Stafford. The Board saw this as "about as unequivocal a statement of discontinuance of use of a mark with an intention not to resume use as there could be."

Thus, the original owners "discontinued use of the mark with an intent not to resume use shortly after filing their TEEN EARTH application that issued as the involved Registration." As Carousel pointed out "there is no other reasonable explanation as to why he would file to register TEEN EARTH [in late 2017] except to try to reserve a right to the mark to which he was not entitled and despite having no intent to resume use of the mark himself."

The burden then shifted to Stafford to rebut Carousel's prima facie case. He submitted some evidence of use of the mark TEEN EARTH in 2019 but then disavowed that evidence in his trial brief. Stafford's purported use of the mark in 2021 did not cure the abandonment that had already occurred.

And so, the Board granted the petition for cancellation:
When we consider the record in its entirety, we find that it "is consistent with a subjective desire to reserve a right in the [TEEN EARTH] mark." Exec. Coach Builders, 123 USPQ2d at 1192. That is not sufficient to overcome Petitioner’s prima facie showing of abandonment. In fact, when Respondent acquired the mark and Registration by assignment in 2021, the mark had already been abandoned, and thus the transaction was nothing more than a “naked” assignment without accompanying goodwill. Auburn Farms, 51 USPQ2d at 1441.14

Read comments and post your comment here.

TTABlogger comment: Note that petitioner also took discovery in order to ferret out the facts.

Text Copyright John L. Welch 2024.

Friday, April 05, 2024

Three Recent TTAB Inter Partes Decisions of Interest

Here are three recent TTAB decisions that you may find of interest. Some of you may remember a rock-and-roll group called "The Young Rascals," later called "The Rascals" once they got older. Three of the original members are still involved in a dispute over use of the name. As part of a long running battle over the mark DERMAPEN, the Board deemed that mark abandoned because the respondent's parent was the user of the mark but the registration was owned by a subsidiary. And the third case demonstrates that discovery is very helpful, if not mandatory, in proving nonuse.

Dino Danelli and Edward Brigati v. Beata Music LLC, Opposition No. 91249965 (March 29, 2024) [not precedential]. [In a 55-page opinion, on cross-motions for summary judgment, the Board sustained this opposition to registration of the mark THE RASCALS for clothing items and entertainment services, upholding Opposer Edward Brigati's claim of contractual estoppel and rejecting Applicant Beata Music's affirmative defense of issue preclusion based on a SDNY litigation. Opposers Danelli and Brigati were members of the original group, along with Felix Cavaliere and Gene Cornish, members of the applicant.]

DP Derm, LLC v. Derma Pen IP Holdings LLC, Cancellation No. 92073045 (April 3, 2024) [not precedential] (Opinion by Judge Jyll S. Taylor). [In a 50-page opinion, the Board gwasanted a petition for cancellation of a registration for the mark DERMAPEN for "skin treatment devices using multiple needles in a vibrating method for performing skin treatment procedures." Distinguishing the Wella precedents, the Board followed its Noble House decision [TTABlogged here] by ruling that because the subject mark was used by respondent's parent company, not by respondent, the DERMAPEN mark was abandoned in light of three years of nonuse with no intent to resume use.]

MEC Addheat Co. Ltd. v. Baiduren (Dongguan) E-Commerce Co., Ltd., Cancellation No. 92079084 (March 29, 2024) [not precedential] (Opinion by Judge Thomas V. Shaw). [The Board granted this petition for cancellation of a registration for the mark ADDHEAT for "Boots; Gloves; Hats; Hoodies; Insoles; Jackets; Overalls; Pants; Shoes; Sweatshirts; Thermal underwear; Tops as clothing; Undershirts; Vests" on the ground of nonuse. Based on petitioner's brief and notice of reliance, the Board concluded that the issue of nonuse was tried by implied consent. Because respondent failed to respond to petitioner's requests for admissions they were deemed admitted, thereby establishing that the mark was not in use for the identified goods at the time the underlying application was filed. And so, the registration was deemed void ab initio.]

Read comments and post your comment here.

TTABlogger comment: Thoughts?

Text Copyright John L. Welch 2024.

Thursday, April 04, 2024

TTABlog Test: How Did These Three Recent 2(d) Appeals Turn Out?

Here are three Section 2(d) appeals recently decided by the TTAB. So far this year, the affirmance rate in Section 2(d) appeals is near 95%! How do you think these three came out? No hints this time. [Answers in first comment.]

In re Biobu SARL, Serial No. 90730546 (March 26, 2024) [not precedential] (Opinion by Judge Cindy B. Greenbaum). [Section 2(d) refusal of EKOBO for "Dishes, plates and bowls; cups; serving dishes and serving trays; and serving spoons and serving tongs; bathroom accessories, namely, soap boxes, soap dishes, tooth brush holders, bath sponges, soap dispensers, bathroom trays," in view of the registered mark ECOBOO for “Bath brushes; Bottle cleaning brushes; Cleaning cloth; Cleaning cloths; Cloths for cleaning; Dish cloths; Loofahs for household purposes; Sponges for household purposes; Abrasive sponges for scrubbing the skin; Bath products, namely, body sponges; Bath products, namely, loofah sponges; Cleaning sponges; Fabric clean room wipes; Facial cleansing sponges; Kitchen sponges; Massage sponges; Scouring sponges."]

In re LeNid USA Inc., Serial No. 90747917 (March 28, 2024) [not precedential] (Opinion by Judge Angela Lykos) [Section 2(d) refusal of CRÈMILY for “Frozen-yogurt” in view of the registered mark CREMILLY for “bakery products; chocolate glaze, chocolate ganache."]

In re Iowa Venture Capital Co-Investment Fund, LLC, Serial No. 97558604 (April 1, 2024) [not precedential] (Opinion by Judge Mark Lebow). [Section 2(d) refusal to register INNOVENTURE IOWA for “Venture capital financing and advisory services in the fields of bioscience, advanced manufacturing and information technology," in view of the registered marks TGH INNOVENTURES and TAMPA GENERAL HOSPITAL INNOVENTURES, for "Financial services, namely, providing venture capital, development capital, and investment funding in the field of healthcare."]

Read comments and post your comment here.

TTABlog comment: How did you do? See any WYHA?s

Text Copyright John L. Welch 2024.

Wednesday, April 03, 2024

Summary Judgment Motion Backfires: C.D. Cal. Dismisses Kate Spade Appeal of TTAB Opposition Defeat

Kate Spade moved for summary judgment in its Section 1071 civil action for review of the Board's decision dismissing its opposition to registration of the mark WOLV & Design (shown below left) for watches. The Board found the mark to be too dissimilar to the KATE SPADE word mark and the "spade logo" mark to support Kate Spade's Section 2(d) likelihood-of-confusion and Section 43(c) dilution-by-blurring claims. [TTABlogged here]. The U.S. District Court for the Central District of California not only denied Kate Spade's motion for summary judgment but affirmed the Board's decision. Kate Spade LLC. v. WOLV INC., Civil Action No. CV 22-4392 FMO (SSCx) (C.D. Cal. March 25, 2024).

Kate Spade sought review of only its Section 2(d) claim, alleging likelihood of confusion with its marks for, inter alia, jewelry and watches. The court focused on the two marks shown above right. Defendant WOLV INC did not contest the allegations that the goods are identical and travel in the same trade channels.

Kate Spade asserted that its marks are famous, but the court found its evidence of fame with respect to watches to be inadequate.
[A]lthough evidence of a mark’s general fame for unrelated product categories may be relevant, the weight of such evidence is greater where plaintiff establishes some nexus between the products for which a mark is famous and the product types at issue. Here, plaintiff makes no such argument . . . and thus the court gives little weight to its general evidence of fame.

The court then concluded that Kate Spade's marks are "weakly famous with respect to the product type."

Turning to a comparison of the marks, the court observed that when "marks would appear on virtually identical goods or services, the degree of similarity necessary to support a conclusion of likely confusion declines." "Also, because the Spade Marks are arbitrary and weakly famous, the degree of similarity needed for a likelihood of confusion finding is further reduced."

Contrary to Kate Spade's contention, the court found the word WOLV to be the dominant element in defendant's mark: "in light of the fallibility of memory ... the average consumer would recall the word WOLV and not the stylized design element." It concluded that "the dissimilarity of the Wolv Mark's word element greatly outweighs any structural similarity."

There was no dispute that the involved marks differ as to sound. Moreover, there is "little similarity of connotation."

The court was "persuaded that the marks are so dissimilar that no 'persons who encounter the marks would be likely to assume a connection between the parties.'"

And so, the court denied Kate Spade's motion for summary judgment. Furthermore, "[t]he TTAB’s findings that the subject marks are so dissimilar in their entireties that there is no likelihood of confusion are affirmed. Plaintiff’s § 2(d) likelihood of confusion claim is hereby dismissed."

Read comments and post your comment here.

TTABlogger comment: The harder they are, the bigger they fall.

Text Copyright John L. Welch 2024.

Tuesday, April 02, 2024

TTAB Says "No Dice" to Opposer's Claim of Functionality of Dice Box Configuration

The Board dismissed this opposition to registration of a mark comprising the product configuration of boxes for storing board game components or dice, rejecting Opposer Chris Taylor's claims of de jure functionality and lack of acquired distinctiveness. The Board found that, although the configuration has utility, it is not functional in the "utilitarian sense," nor is it functional in the aesthetic sense. Chris W. Taylor Jr. v. Three Frog, LLC, Opposition No. 91255161 (March 29, 2024) [not precedential] (Opinion by Judge Elizabeth A. Dunn).

"The mark consists of a three-dimensional configuration of the interior of a hex shaped box with a honeycomb configuration of seven interior hexagonal indentations on the bottom of the box and the design of a six point star, having flat points, on the top of the box. The broken lines depicting circular magnets indicate placement of the mark on the goods and are not part of the mark."

Functionality in the Utilitarian Sense: "[M]atter is functional in the utilitarian sense if  'it is essential to the use or purpose of the articles or if it affects the costs of quality of the article.'" TrafFix. The Board applied the Morton-Norwich factors, finding no utility patent of record that discloses the utilitarian features of Applicant Three Frog's dice box, no evidence that Three Frog touted the utilitarian advantages of the design, and no evidence that the configuration at issue is comparatively cheap or simple to manufacture. Opposer Taylor admitted that alternative designs are available.

The Board noted the U.S. Copyright Office's (non-final) refusal to register a copyright in the design on the ground that a dice box is a "useful article" under 17 U.S.C. Section 101. The Board, however, was not persuaded that "the finding that Applicant’s dice box has 'an intrinsic utilitarian function' for copyright purposes is equivalent to a finding that the configuration 'is essential to the use or purpose of the article or if it affects the cost or quality of the article,' the test laid out by the Supreme Court for trademark functionality."

The Board concluded that the proposed mark is not de jure functional under the "utilitarian functionality test."

Aesthetic Functionality: "[A] mark is aesthetically functional and prohibited from registration if, rather than utilitarian advantage in terms of product performance, the design provides other competitive advantages." Qualitex. There was no evidence as to how products are developed or marketed in the dice box field, or what features are desirable, or why Three Frog's design is superior. Moreover, the evidence showed that there are several available alternative designs. [Example below].

The Board concluded that Opposer Taylor failed to prove aesthetic functionality.

Acquired Distinctiveness: Of course, product designs can never be inherently distinctive. Wal-Mart. Accordingly, Three Frog sought registration under Section 2(f). The Board looked to the Converse factors to determine whether the subject design has achieved acquired distinctiveness.

Three Frog submitted five declarations from third parties in the tabletop gaming business to demonstrate that its box design is associated with it. The Board found the declarations "somewhat persuasive." Though the declarations were rather formulaic, they varied in length and detail and each declarant "plainly states that he is unaware of other products that use the same or similar design elements to Applicant's box."

Three Frog has been selling its dice box configuration since 2014 and sales have been substantially exclusive and have increased exponentially.  Three Frog has spent more than $1 million to promote its product line and this dice box configuration is its main product. It has advertised at gaming conventions and via social media, Google Ads, and social influencers. Three Frog is one of the three biggest sellers of dice boxes, and each of the three companies makes unique dice boxes. Three Frog has policed the mark and has received unsolicited media coverage.

Based on the evidence of long and substantially exclusive use, industry recognition, sales and advertising expenditures, and unsolicited media attention, we find that Applicant’s dice box configuration has acquired distinctiveness, and Opposer’s claim that Applicant’s dice box configuration is non-distinctive trade dress must fail.

And so, the Board dismissed the opposition.

Read comments and post your comment here.

TTABlogger comment: Nicely Dunn.

Text Copyright John L. Welch 2024.

Monday, April 01, 2024

TTAB Quarterly Index: January - March 2024

E-mail subscriptions to the TTABlog are available. Just enter your e-mail address in the box on the right to receive a daily update via Feedblitz. Please report any broken or inoperative links, as well as any errors and omissions, to the TTABlogger at jwelch at

Section 2(a) - False Suggestion of a Connection:

Section 2(d) - Likelihood of Confusion:

Section 2(e)(1) - Mere Descriptiveness: Section 2(e)(1) - Deceptive Misdescriptiveness: Section 2(e)(4) - Primarily Merely a Surname: Section 2(e)(5) - Functionality: Section 2(f) - Acquired Distinctivenss:
Abandonment: Failure-to-Function/Specimen of Use:



CAFC Decisions:

Recommended Reading:


Text © John L. Welch 2024.